October 3, 2023


Food Information

#Beef #exports stay robust, regardless of U.S. greenback energy

6 min read

Exports will likely be a key driver for cattle and beef markets in 2023. How export demand holds up will likely be influenced by what occurs in foreign money markets. Beef export information proceed to point out general progress, however with a excessive degree of financial uncertainty worldwide, headwinds stay robust.

Information for U.S. beef exports are reported in metric tons of product weight by the U.S. Division of Commerce. Portions are sometimes transformed from metric tons to kilos. These amount information can be usually transformed from a product-weight foundation to a carcass-weight-equivalent (CWE) foundation. Information are transformed to a CWE foundation to permit “apples-to-apples” comparisons to beef manufacturing information, that are reported in CWE. Beef exports accounted for 12.2% of whole annual manufacturing in 2021. The export share was up barely in 2022.

USDA’s Financial Analysis Service calculates and publishes beef commerce numbers on a CWE foundation. The newest official export numbers accessible are for November. Information are revealed about 5 weeks after the shut of a month.

Exports declined in late 2022

November commerce information confirmed month-to-month U.S. beef import ranges had been the bottom in practically two years, whereas exports noticed solely the second year-over-year decline in 2022. November beef exports had been 277.0 million kilos, down 6.1% from November 2021. Decrease shipments had been seen to most main locations, with China down 10.7% from a yr earlier, Japan down 10.1%, Mexico down 5.4%, and South Korea down 3.0%. Exports to Canada posted a 7.9% year-over-year enhance.

January to November 2022 export quantity was 3.27 billion kilos, up 4.0% from the report tempo of 2021. Yr-to-date exports to Japan, the main quantity marketplace for U.S. beef, had been down 1.7% from the identical interval final yr. January to November export quantity to South Korea was up 2.1% and more likely to break the 2021 quantity report when December information can be found. January to November beef exports to China had been up 22.3% and have already damaged the annual 2021 report. By means of November, exports to Mexico and Canada had been 11.6% under and 1.6% above final yr’s tempo, respectively. Beef exports to the Philippines, Singapore and Cambodia already set annual quantity data, and shipments to Thailand are on a report tempo. Export quantity to Taiwan via November can be on a report tempo and well-positioned to prime the 2020 report.

U.S. beef imports had been 241.0 million kilos in November, down 18.8% from November 2021, marking the bottom month-to-month import degree since February 2021 (198.4 million kilos). Decrease imports had been resulting from a 3.6% lower in shipments from Mexico, 20.9% decline from Australia, 32.1% decline from New Zealand and 62.6% decline from Brazil, which greater than offset a 3.2% enhance in shipments from Canada. By means of November, imports had been up 2.3% year-over-year, with Canada up 1.1%, Mexico up 10.7%, and Brazil up 42.0%. Yr-to-date beef imports from Australia and New Zealand are down 3.4% and 22.9%, respectively.

Beef export outlook for 2023

The World Agricultural Provide and Demand Estimates, ready and launched by the World Agricultural Outlook Board, have beef exports declining by about 13% in 2023 in comparison with 2022, and imports declining about 1% ― with their forecasts reflecting the availability realities right here in the USA and overseas.

A weaker U.S. greenback is required to offset a few of the anticipated enhance in export costs. Any persevering with energy within the U.S. greenback wouldn’t bode nicely for exports. A stronger U.S. greenback means worldwide patrons should pay extra of their very own foreign money to purchase U.S. beef. A powerful U.S. greenback additionally tends to help U.S. beef imports because it successfully lowers the worth of products in different markets.

The alternate charge between two currencies specifies how a lot one foreign money is value when it comes to the opposite. There are two methods to precise alternate charges. One is the variety of models of international foreign money vital to buy one unit of home foreign money. The opposite manner is the variety of models of home foreign money vital to buy one unit of international foreign money. For instance, let’s take the case of the USA (USD or US$) and Canada (CAD or $C). An alternate charge of 0.7374 means US$0.7374 can be wanted to buy one CAD. The 0.7374 charge may be expressed as requiring C$1.3561 to purchase one USD. In different phrases, 0.7374 is actually 1 divided by 1.3561, and 1.3561 is actually 1 divided by 0.7374.


The U.S. Greenback Index is used to measure the worth of the greenback in opposition to a basket of foreign currency echange. The six currencies included within the U.S. Greenback Index are the Euro, Swiss franc, Japanese yen, Canadian greenback, British pound, and Swedish krona. Evaluating the common of every day U.S. Greenback Index values in 2022 to 2021, the U.S. greenback appreciated 12.4% in 2022. It hit a two-decade excessive in September and remained at elevated ranges via early November, earlier than retreating some to finish the yr.

Why the U.S. greenback is strengthening

A stronger U.S. greenback implies ongoing uncertainty in world monetary markets and the flight to the perceived security of U.S. bonds. Within the brief time period, the alternate charge is set by the movement of a foreign money between two international locations. Forex movement is affected by rates of interest, commerce stability, traders’ confidence, and points or expectations in a single nation relative to a different nation. A world recession would hit rising markets notably exhausting, and this has been an space of progress for U.S. beef exports in recent times.

Whereas the U.S. Greenback Index is a barometer of the greenback’s collective worldwide worth, consideration at all times must be paid to particular person currencies. A number of currencies which can be crucial to the aggressive place of the U.S. usually are not included within the U.S. Greenback Index. Amongst these are the Mexican peso, South Korean gained, Brazilian actual and Australian greenback.


Determine 1 exhibits the U.S. greenback versus the currencies of nations which can be main beef export opponents within the international market with the USA. In comparison with the Australian greenback, the U.S. greenback was about 8% costlier in 2022 than in 2021, whereas in comparison with the Brazilian actual, the U.S. greenback was about 4% inexpensive in 2022 than in 2021. That, is the greenback received weaker relative to the Brazilian actual (i.e., takes much less Brazilian reals to purchase one U.S. greenback) which is sweet for export competitiveness whereas the U.S. greenback received stronger relative to the Australian greenback (i.e., takes extra Australian {dollars} to purchase one U.S. greenback) which is dangerous for export competitiveness.

Determine 2 exhibits the U.S. greenback versus the currencies of nations which can be huge patrons of beef. In comparison with the Japanese yen, the U.S. greenback was about 20% costlier in 2022 than in 2021. Equally, the U.S. greenback gained about 13% on the South Korean gained. The Mexican peso gained about 1% on the U.S. greenback in 2022 and is at its strongest relative degree since 2019.

You will need to keep in mind that the alternate charge just isn’t the one consider commerce. Trade charge shifts are translated into worth adjustments for items traded. Different occasions like drought and financial slowdowns can set off oblique results and have an effect on commerce ranges. It’s additionally necessary to keep in mind that for high-value merchandise, like beef, amount demanded may be much less delicate to cost and foreign money fluctuations. A powerful greenback will likely be a hurdle for beef exports in 2023 ― however as historical past has proven, it won’t be a roadblock.

Schulz is an Extension ag economist with Iowa State College.

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